Paper and Pulp Manufacture Wastewater Treatment
The paper industry uses very high volumes of process water for pulp preparation and bleaching among other processes. Water is needed to make paper pulp out of fibers such as cellulose, wood or recovered paper. If recycled paper is used a further stage is involved to remove the ink from the recycled paper. These processes collectively produce a significant amount of contaminated wastewater and sludge. On average for every ton of pulp produced in the production of paper approximately 17,000 gallons of industrial process water is required. This sets the paper and pulp industry at the top of the list for industrial consumers of fresh water and energy.